The Turin Beatus Codex
Commentary on the Apocalypse by Beatus of Liébana, early 12th century, Spain
Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria di Torino, Sgn I. II. 1
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
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Photo by Elizabeth Uhlig
First Four Seals: Four Horsemen.
From the Turin Beatus, early 12th century. Christ, the Lamb is in the circle at the top; the four evangelists: upper left, Mark (lion); upper right, Matthew (man); lower right, John (eagle); lower left, Luke (ox).
And I saw that the Lamb had opened one of the seven seals.
And I heard one of the four living creatures saying, "Draw near and see."
And I saw a white horse, and the rider was holding a bow, and a crown was given to him, and he went forth conquering. And when he opened the second seal, the second living creature spoke.
And a red horse went forth, and it was granted to its rider that he would take peace from the earth, and that they would kill one another.
And a great sword was given to him. And when he opened the third seal, the third living creature spoke. And he saw a black horse, and its rider was holding a balance in his hand.
And when he opened the fourth seal, the fourth living creature spoke. And I saw a pale horse, and the rider's name was Death, and Hell was following him.
And authority was given to him over the four parts of the earth, to destroy by the sword, by famine, and by death. (Rev. 6:1-8)
Il Commento all'Apocalisse di Beatus di Liebana, copia catalana (secolo XI-XII) del Beatus visigotico della cattedrale di Gerona, databile al 975.
The Commentary on the Apocalypse of Beatus of Liebana, Catalan copy (XI-XII century) of the Visigothic Beatus of the cathedral of Gerona, dating back to 975.
Beatus Liebanensis, Commentarius in Apocalypsim, et alia (lat.), ms.J.II.1, Ms. membranaceo, sec. XI-XII.
The Siege of Jerusalem, Turin Beatus Codex