Referenced as figure 28 in Arms and Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350, Western Europe and the Crusader States by David Nicolle.
28A-M ‘Legend of Roland and Oliver‘, stained glass window, County of Blois, c.1213
(in situ Cathedral, Chartres, France)
A - ‘Slain Moors’; B - ‘Roland’;
C - ‘Roland’; D,
G - ‘Moors’; H,
I, J - ‘Army of Charlemagne’;
K - ‘Charlemagne’; L-M - ‘Roland and Oliver’.
Essentially the same styles are seen in this window as in the ‘Murder of Becket’ except that the Christians’ flat-topped helmets have round edges.
This may indicate a slightly later style or simply a variation in construction technique. All such helmets are shown with facial visors (A, C, H-K).
Some reach below the chin while others seem a little shorter (C, H and J).
One visored helmet looks almost conical (J) but is clearly not the same as the simple conical helmets worn by most of the ‘Moors’ (A and G).
Only once is a defeated ‘Moor’ shown in a helmet with a forward-angled crown (A).
The Christians wear long-sleeved mail hauberks with mittens, mail coifs and mail chausses.
Most but not all have surcoats and carry the newer, broader, ﬂat-topped kite-shaped shields (B, C, H-K).
Spears are the favoured weapons while broadswords with straight (J) or curved (I and L) quillons are hung from knotted sword-belts (J).
The equipment of the ‘Moors’ is more fanciful and less realistic though it was probably based on a conventionalised reality.
Mail or scale hauberks and coifs are shown (A, D, E and G), as well as mail chausses (E-G).
Lamellar cuirasses are worn over the mail (A, E and G), while shields are round.
For terms in italics see Terminology in Armour of the Crusading Era, 1050-1350 - Western Europe and the Crusader States - David Nicolle
Referenced as figure 581 in The military technology of classical Islam by D Nicolle
581. Stained glass windows, "Moors, " The Legend of Roland and Oliver, 12th century AD, French, in situ, Cathedral, Chartres.
Vol 1, pp. 190-191: The jawshan consisted of a separate sheet of laced lamellar for the body with other smaller sheets to protect the arms, hips or thighs. 158
The torso-piece could be worn on its own159 when it may have corresponded to the 10th century kamarband.
In fact, the term jawshan may well have originally meant a protection for the breast or trunk. 160
In al Andalus the jawshan was probably rare, despite its clear representation on a 12th century stained
glass window at Chartres illustrating the Song of Roland (Fig. 581).
It was, however, certainly known, as indicated by Ibn Hudhayl in the 14th century who described it as an armour with no backing, 161 indicating that it was clearly not of scales.
158. Usāmah ibn Munqidh, op cit., p. 52; al Aqṣarā'ī, op cit., pp. 321-322.
159. Al Aqṣarā'ī, op cit., p: 322.
160. Bivar "Cavalry Equipment and Tactics on the Euphrates Frontier," p. 275; Schwarzlose, op cit., p. 338.
161. Ibn Hudhayl, op cit., pp. 264- 268.
Other 13th Century Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers
Index of Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers
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