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Armies of the Wars in India:
Part IV The Mysoreans
by Paul D. Stevenson
Minature Wargames No 11
The Mysorean Army - Origins
The Mysorean state in southern India grew into one of the most powerful states in the sub-continent during the eighteenth century. For this reason Mysore was particularly menacing to British interests, especially in view of her alignment with the French. The man who brought Mysore to the political fore in India was a common soldier called Haider Ali. He could neither read nor write, but he had a flair for politics and a forceful personality. He established a lasting reputation for ruthlessness and acts of cruelty to prisoners of war. His son and heir Tipu Sultan (Tipoo Sahib), was far more cultured and displayed mercy to his captives on occasion, but he was just as ruthless as his father. The state of Mysore fought four separate wars against the British. The Mysoreans are notable in that they inflicted the worst disaster to befall British arms to that date.
1st Mysore War
Through his political intrigues against the Nawab of the Carnatic, Haider Ali found himself at war with the British. When Haider and his ally, the Moghul Emperor's Viceroy of the Deccan attempted to invade the Carnatic with 70,000 men they were met by a British force of 6,800 men under Colonel Smith at Changama in August 1767. Smith managed to repulse the Indians, but due to lack of food supplies he was forced to fall back on Trinomalee. Here Smith, now reinforced, attacked Haider's positions and forced him to retreat with a loss of 4,000 men for just 115 British.
Haider Ali specialised in mobile tactics, and with some quick marching he reached Madras in 84 hours (having covered a distance of 130 miles) where he was able to threaten the British governor there into making peace terms.
2nd Mysore War.
The war was sparked off by British attacks on French possessions in India upon the intervention of the French on the side of the rebels in the American War of Independence. When the territory of Mahé was taken by the British, Haider Ali felt that his Malabar Coast conquests were threatened. He consequently threw in his lot with the French and declared war on Britain.
In the war the British suffered an early disaster when Colonel Baillie's column consisting of 400 Europeans and 3,400 sepoys was wiped out by the Mysorean army of 55,000 infantry, 28,000 cavalry, 7,000 rocketeers and 400 French cavalry, at Perambakam on the 10th September 1780. The following year Haider's army suffered defeats at Pollilur (27th August), Sholinghur (27th September) and at the fall of Negapatam (12th November). In 1782 Tipu almost destroyed another column led by Colonel Baillie of 1,600 men at Coleroon on 18th February. In the battle every British officer was killed or wounded and only one third of the column effected an escape.
Haider Ali himself died shortly after a drawn battle with the veteran British commander Eyre Coote at Arni in June 1782. Tipu Sultan the celebrated 'Tiger of Mysore' was proclaimed the new ruler. In his father's turban Tipu found a note advising him to keep the peace with the British as he (Haider Ali) had gained nothing from war with them.
In that same year, during March, a French fleet of 15 ships under Admiral Pierre de Suffren landed 3,000 French troops at Cuddalore. These were supplemented by a further 3,000 sepoys. In June the French were attacked by the Madras army under General Stuart. Tipu aided the French with 3,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry.
He attempted to capture Mangalore but had to lift the siege when the French contingent commanded by M. de Cossigny was withdrawn upon learning of the Treaty of Versailles which brought about the end of the War of Independence. An agreement to supply the garrison with victuals was not honoured by Tipu and despite the ongoing peace treaty negotiations between the British and Mysore, Tipu renewed the siege. The garrison surrendered on the 30th January 1784, cut to half strength by starvation and scurvy. Peace terms were eventually agreed upon by Tipu and the Madras Governor, Lord Macartney, on the 11th March.
3rd Mysore War
The British wanted to break the Mysorean hold on the Malabar coastal strip. Tipu's general, Hussein Ali, with 9,000 men met the British force at Calicut on 10th December 1790. The British force consisted of 600 Europeans and 1,900 sepoys under Colonel Hartley who attacked the Mysoreans and lost only 52 men against Mysorean losses of 1,000 plus 900 prisoners. Tipu's main army still posed a threat and was difficult to bring to battle in the field. Unable to bring Tipu to bay, the British commander, General Cornwallis (from the American Revolutionary War), moved on the important town of Bangalore. The town itself was captured on 7th March 1791, with a loss of 130 British and 2,000 Mysoreans. The adjoining fort was finally carried on 21st March by 36th and 72nd Foot. Cornwallis was later joined by 10,000 horse of the Nizam of Hyderabad, and on 3rd May marched for Tipu's capital at Seringapatam. Meanwhile another British column of nine batta-lions under General Abercrombie entered Mysore via Coorg to the west of Seringapatam. Cornwallis approached Tipu's capital from the south but found the river Cauvery there unfordable. Tipu's forces were drawn up in strong positions nine miles south of the capital at Arikera. Following an abortive night march around Tipu's flank to the north, the Mysoreans were driven back the following morning into Seringapatam by a flank attack of five battalions led by Colonel Maxwell. Mysorean casualties were around 2,000 and those of the British were 500. Unfortunately it was now too late in the season to undertake a major siege and Cornwallis was compelled to destroy his siege train and retire to Bangalore, whilst Abercrombie retired to Bombay.
The following year Cornwallis resumed the campaign against Seringapatam. Tipu defended his capital with 40,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry, 100 field guns and 300 garrison pieces. Cornwallis brought against him 6,000 Europeans, 16,000 sepoys, 46 field guns, 4 howitzers, 36 mortars and siege guns, 18,000 of the Nizam's horse and 12,000 Mahrattas under Han Punt. Abercrombie's force increased the total with 3,000 Europeans, 6,000 sepoys and 14 guns. A total force of 31,000 trained infantry and cavalry plus 30,000 Indian irregular horse. Many of the latter were unreliable however. The siege lasted from 5th to 16th February and Tipu was defeated. Mysorean losses were 4,000 men and 86 guns. British losses were 35 men killed and wounded. Tipu had to pay large indemnities and release two of his sons as hostages, in addition to giving the British suzerainty over the territories of Malabar, Coorg and south-east Mysore.
4th Mysore War
Tipu's French alignment and suspected alliance with the Directory's emerging leader made the British wary of the Mysoreans. Indeed a letter was sent to Tipu from Napoleon Bonaparte which made definite friendly overtures. When the French landed in Egypt, Tipu hoped for Napoleon's aid to fight the British in India. The newly installed British Governor-General, Richard Wellesley, Lord Mornington (Wellington's eldest brother), decided to crush Tipu before the French might intervene. On 3rd March 1799, two British columns were sent to capture Tipu's capital, Seringapatam. From the east, the Madras Presiden-cy sent General Harris with 21,000 men. He was joined by 4,000 of the Nizam's French-trained Europeans formerly commanded by Raymond, 6,000 English trained sepoys and 6,000 of the Nizam's best horse. This latter contingent was commanded by Colonel Arthur Wellesley (later Duke of Wellington) who was appointed over the head of a senior British officer by Mir Alam, the Nizam's general in chief. Wellesley also added his own regiment, the 33rd Foot. to the column. From the west the Bombay Residency despatched General Stuart with an army of 6,000 men.
On 6th March 12,000 Mysoreans attacked Stuart's vanguard which was commanded by Lt. Colonel Montresor, at Sidassir. The Mysoreans were driven off, with their leader Mohammed Raza and 2,000 men as casualties. Montresor lost only 143 men. Harris's column too met opposition when they were intercepted at Malavelly on 27th March. The British column was caught debouching from thick jungle but managed to beat off the Mysore army of 6,000 men. One thousand Mysoreans were casualties and British losses were once again only slight.
By 6th April Harris was before Seringapatam. Since the last siege Tipu had strengthened the fortifications of his capital on the eastern face only. On the 14th April Stuart's force arrived in position north of the capital and on 22nd April his positions there were fiercely attacked by 6,000 Mysorean infantry, but they were repulsed with heavy losses. By 2nd May the British had breached the north-west wall with their heavy batteries. On the 4th May 2,500 Europeans and 1,800 sepoys led by General Baird (himself a former inmate of Seringapatam's dungeon), stormed the breach. The defenders were routed and in the course of the fighting Tipu Sultan met his fate. His body was later discovered under a pile of Mysorean dead. He had died fighting. Tipu passed into legend and became a popular hero during the Victorian era. Mysorean losses amounted to 6,000, while British casualties were 1,464. The Mysoreans had been finally subjugated.
Towards the end of Haider's reign the numbers of regular troops were increased because it was found that the irregulars were no match for the British troops. Against neighbouring states the Mysorean army was invincible and much territory was brought under Mysorean control because of her well trained army. Because of her expansionist policies Mysore became a natural enemy of the rapidly expanding British. Both Haider and Tipu looked to the French for support and the French were only too willing to help in order to restore their own position in India. The Mysore army was trained in the French manner, but had it's own peculiar organisation.
The regulars were originally organised into cushoons of 1,500 men. There were two battalion-sized units called risalas in a cushoon. The risalas were further sub-divided into jugs or companies. Cushoons, risalas and jugs were commanded by siphadars, risaldars and juqdars respectively. A subaltern officer called a sarayasaqchi was appointed to each battalion. He had wide powers of inspection and it was his job to report to the higher command the state of morale and discipline of his risala. In 1790 the senior formation became known as a cutchery of which there were four for each of cavalry and infantry. Cavalry cutcheries were divided into five mokums and infantry cutcheries were of six cushoons (regiments). The command of the cutcheries was given to an officer called a bakaski while infantry commanders were known as sipahadars and cavalry commanders as mokumdars.
The regular troops were well equipped and wore uniforms of mainly white in Haider's reign. Tipu's cult animal was the tiger, hence his sobriquet 'Tiger of Mysore' and he had many items made for him in the form of tigers. A life-size model of a mechanical tiger mauling a European exists, along with a mortar cast in a tiger's form, taken at Seringapatam by Harris. Tipu extended his tiger obsession to clothing his troops in purple tunics called bubris which were embroidered with a tiger pattern. The tunic was worn with or without short white trousers. The infantry were armed with the India pattern Tower musket and each cushoon had it's own complement of artillery, one to five heavy field guns. Most of the Mysorean artillery pieces were cast at Mysore under the supervi-sion of Frenchmen. The cavalry were called askars or stable horse but they were no match for the regular British light dragoons who were then beginning to make their appearance in India.
The majority of the Mysore army were irregular troops. Haider relied mainly on cavalry raised on the silhadar principle of each man providing his own arms and mount in return for adjusted wages. Because they did not receive regular pay and because they were not controlled directly by the state, the irregular troops pillaged far and wide, devastating large tracts of the countryside wherever they moved, particularly during Tipu's incursions into the Carnatic and Malabar coastal regions. The irregular cavalry were natural warriors and adept with their matchlocks, which they used as hunters.
Irregular foot troops were often locally called up levies often fighting only for plunder. Most irregulars were armed with matchlock muskets or bows and arrows. Rocket troops were part of the irregular contingent. The missiles were extremely popular with Mysorean armies and could make up about 10% of the total army strength. According to the Frenchman de la Tour, the Mysorean rockets could carry up to 1,000 yards. The rockets were at their most effective when used in a concentrated barrage so that they could not be ducked. They were particularly useful against cavalry to frighten the horses. It was a rocket which contributed to Baillie's defeat by setting fire to one of his ammunition wagons. A method of execution which amused the brutal Mysorean mind was to strap rockets about the person of the victim and ignite the fuses.
Another auxiliary arm of the Mysorean army was the Ahmadi Corps of 10,000 men. Like the Turkish Janissaries, they were Christian slaves. Most of them came from the Malabar territory and having been forced into Mysorean service they were circumcised and converted to Moslems. One of Tipu's methods of consolidating his territorial gains was to deport whole populations from their native territory and repopulate the area with Mysoreans. This he did with Coorg in 1786 and with Travancore in 1788. The Ahmadi Corps was poorly equipped and, as it turned out, more a liability than an asset. Tipu foolishly placed them in the centre of his line at the first siege of Seringapatam and they deserted wholesale.
The French Corps
Henri de la Sale, who adopted the pseudonym 'Lally' from the one time French Governor Lally Tohlendal, commanded a force of around 400 Frenchmen, mainly from the Mahé settlement. The French contingent provided the Mysore princes with a good, reliable nucleus upon which to build their armies. The Frenchmen fought to protect their own interests against the expanding British rule and were taken under the wing of Haider.
Originally a major in the French Swiss corps in 1775, Lally was captured by the British but was shortly exchanged. After short spells with Casalat Jung's French corps and with the Nizam of Hyderabad, Lally took service with Haider Au and also served under Tipu Sultan. He gave invaluable service to his masters.
Lally had 400 men of his corps at Perambakam and had not the French officers intervened, the British prisoners would have been massacred. Lally showed mercy to these prisoners, sending them proper medical attention, new clothes and food. In 1782 at the battle of Coleroon, Lally's 400 cavalry were instrumental in the defeat of Colonel Braithwaite's force when they delivered an irresistible charge. Lally died of a severe wound received at Cheynur in 1790. His corps lived on and at Seringapatam 360 men held the Lally redoubt in 1792. At 2nd Seringapatam 450 Frenchmen again served with Tipu's army.
Army Composition and Other Notes
For the invasion of the Carnatic in 1780 Haider's army numbered 10,000 men. In 1782 the army was 88,000 strong. In late 1790 the Mysore army numbered 131,000, viz. 3,000 regular and 5,000 irregular cavalry, 48,000 regular and 65,000 irregular infantry plus 10,000 asid ilahis (POW battalions). At Seringapatam in 1792 Tipu had 40,000 infantry and 5,000 cavalry (2,000 of the latter were dismounted askars), plus 10,000 men of the Ahmadi Corps. The artillery consisted of 100 field guns and 300 garrison pieces. At Seringapatam Tipu's army consisted of 22,000 infantry and 14,000 cavalry.
The Mysore bullocks were supposed to be the best in India. Wellesley used large quantities of these to supply his own army during the Mahratta War. He also used the Mysorean-style wicker boats, capable of carrying two men and light enough to be carried by one. Also worthy of note is the type of defences used by Mysorean armies in the field - these were enclosures of bound hedge made up with bamboo and thorn.
Pictures of Mysorean regular infantry c.1790 & Mysorean askar c.1790
Picture of a Mysorean Silhadar
For Wargamers: Suggested Army List. Wargames Research Group 1685-1845 Rules.
1,100 to 2,000 points.
Prince on elephant @ 110 points or on horse at 100 points.
Vizier on elephant or on horse @ 30 or 20 points.
Regular French sub general @ 40 points or Regular Indian sub general @ 20 points; 1 per 6 infantry units or 5 cavalry.
Irregular sub general on horse @ 20 points. 1 per 4 irregular units.
Silhadars. 12 to 20 Irregular fanatic cavalry @ 9 points each; 2 to 5 units.
Askars. 12 Raw regular lancers @ 8 points each; 1 to 3 units.
Risalas. 14 Raw regular line infantry @ 3 points each; 3 to 12 units.
Ahmadis. 20 Irregular levy charging infantry armed for hand to hand combat; @ 1 point each; 1 or 2 units.
Irregular foot. 20 irregular levy, charging infantry with matchlock @ 2 points each; 3 to 12 units.
Irregular foot. 20 irregular levy skirmishing infantry with bow @ 2 points each; 1 to 3 units.
Royal Guards. 20 Irregular fanatic charging infantry armed for hand to hand combat only @ 4 points each; up to 1 unit.
French Corps. 8 to 12 regular veteran light cavalry @ 12 points each, or up to 10 regular veteran line infantry @ 5 points each; up to 1 unit.
Rocketeers. 10 irregular warrior rocketeers @ 20 points (additionally mounted on camels @ 2 points each); 1 to 2 units.
Field Artillery. Heavy gun with 5 raw regular gunners and limber with 6 pairs of oxen and levy drivers @ points each; 1 or 2 guns per 2 regular battalions.
Siege or Garrison Artillery. Siege gun @ 50 points, 5 raw regular gunners @ points, 10 pairs of bullocks and levy drivers @ 11 points = 81 points each; up to 6. (Up to 3 mortars may be substituted for siege guns).
War Elephant. 3 warriors with bow or matchlock mounted on elephant @ 19 points each; up to 3.
Gingal. Very light gun, 2 warrior crew mounted on elephant @ 30 points each; up to 3.
Armies of the Wars in India: by Paul D. Stevenson
Armies of the Wars in India: The British Army by Paul D. Stevenson
Mysore Wars Main Page